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THE SOLAR SYSTEM, EARTH & ATMOSPHERE

By Dave Bhardwaj


INTRODUCTION
Our wonderful planet Earth is the only planet in the solar system which can sustain life. The Earth is at a right distance from the Sun, which makes it suitable for life. The oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide level are well balanced.
This brief description talks about how great our planet was and what we did to ruin it. It also talks about the planets, the inner planets, inside of the Earth and Earthís atmosphere.

 

THE PLANETS
There are nine planets in our solar system. Those planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. All these planets orbit the Sun in the same way, apart from Pluto. Scientists suggest that Pluto is not part of our solar system because Plutoís orbit around the Sun is different.
Most planets in our solar system have moons like Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus. Some planets like mars Mercury and Venus donít have moons. The coldest planet in the solar system is Pluto. Its temperature is minus 390 F.


 


THE INNER PLANETS
The inner planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. The inner planets are separated from the asteroid belt which is between Mars and Jupiter.
The hottest planet in our solar system is Venus. Venus temperature can reach 900 F. Mercury surface temperature can reach 870 F or plummet to minus 280 F.
Mars has the biggest mountain in the solar system, Olympus Mons, which is 15 miles high.
 

INSIDE THE EARTH
From space the Earth looks like a big sphere. Earthís interior is made up of 4 layers. The first layer is the crust. The crust is 15-22 miles deep from land and 3-6 miles deep from the sea bed. Below the crust is the mantle. The mantle is the thickest part. It is about 1,800 miles deep. Under the mantle is the outer core made mainly of iron and nickel. Finally the core, which is also made of molten iron & nickel.

 



THE EARTHíS ATMOSPHERE
The Earthís atmosphere can be divided into 5 layers. Those five layers are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere. Earth's atmosphere consists of nitrogen (78.1%) and oxygen (20.9%), with small amounts of argon (0.9%), carbon dioxide (variable, but around 0.035%), water vapor, and other gases. 

The distances and temperature of earth's 5 layers of atmosphere is:

Troposphere - 0 - 7/17 km, temperature decreasing with height.

Stratosphere - 7/17 - 50 km, temperature increasing with height.

Mesosphere - 50 - 80/85 km, temperature decreasing with height.

Thermosphere - 80/85 - 640+ km, temperature increasing with height.

The boundaries between these regions are named the tropopause, stratopause and mesopause.

 


The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation and reducing temperature extremes between day and night. 75% of the atmosphere exists within 11km of the planetary surface.
The stratosphere contains a thin layer known as the ozone layer. The ozone layer shields us from the Sunís harmful rays. But now chemical gases, such as CFCs once used in refrigerators are destroying the stratospheric ozone. Huge parts of the ozone layer are breaking every day. The Sunís dangerous rays are entering the Earth which can harm plants and animal life on earth. We have to stop pollution!

 

About The Author: This article is written by Dave Bhardwaj a 12 years old (Grade 7) student. For more articles from Dave Click here

 
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