is a complex issue, from the source of pollution
to its short-term and long-term impacts on human
and other species that depend on it. Water
pollution has become a big problem in
the world today. Every year we dump, 14
billions pounds of sewage, sludge, and garbage into the world's
water bodies such as rivers, lakes and
streams all of which eventually end up in
the oceans. 19 trillion
gallons of waste also enter the water annually.
Effects of Water Pollution:
Effects of water
pollution include poisonous drinking
water, poisonous food for animals, unbalanced
river and lake ecosystems that can no longer
support full biological diversity, deforestation
from acid rain, and many other effects.
Water pollution does not just effect humans, it
effects entire ecosystem. Birds and marine life
are effected by it.
Sources Of Water Pollution:
pollution may be subdivided into point sources
and non point sources.
A) Point Sources:
sources are sources from which
pollutants are released at one readily
identifiable spot, such as sewer outlet,
a mill, a septic tank etc.
Industry plays a major role in point
source pollution. Industrial wasterwater
and discharges include oils, greases,
metals, chemicals, such as PCB's and
pesticides, and debris that eventually
head into the Cuyahoga River.
Oil Spills and
Oil spills and dumping also play a major
role in point source pollution. Spilled
grease, oil, and other hazardous
substances from overturned trucks and
leaking cars have a major impact by
eventually running into rivers and
sewers. Also, the disposal of used motor
oil and grease affects the water by
going into a storm sewer which can
overflow into the river, or it will go
directly into the river.
Also affecting the water are outflow
pipes from industries, companies, and
other such buildings directly pouring
their waste into the rivers and lakes.
Thermal pollution decreases the waterÕs
ability to hold oxygen.
B) Non point sources:
sources are more diffuse, example would
include fertilizer run off from
farmland, acid drainage from an
abandoned strip mine, or run off of
sodium or calcium chloride from road
often being dumped with no permit
include debris, raw sewage, public and
private litter, natural debris, oils,
scums, paints, chlorides, PAHÕs, organic
carbon, metals (cadmium, chromium, iron,
cyanide, lead, zinc, copper, and
nickel), toxins from industries and home
use, organic pollution (grass, leaves,
human sewage, pet wastes, and dead
organisms), and inorganic pollution
(suspended and dissolved solids).
Bacteria levels increase in the Cuyahoga
River following heavy rainfalls because
of wastes upstream.
Sediments come from highly traveled,
unvegetated, open space, abused stream
banks, modification of streams and
wetlands, other water bodies, high-till
farming that make soil erode,
decomposing material, and dredging for
large ships to travel.
Runoff is referred to as any liquid
substance that runs from one area to
another and is not absorbed by the
Urban runoff from buildings and streets
include oil, grease, trash, road salts,
lawn fertilizer, lead, metals, bacteria,
and PCB's that run into surface and
Agricultural storm water runoff from
rain and snow melt carries animal
wastes, pesticides, nutrients, and
sediments into surface and ground
Other storm water runoff contributors
are logging, timber cutting operations,
and construction sites.
Another nonpoint source of pollution is
leakage. Abandoned surface mines and
waste piles may leak sediments, acids,
and chemicals. Improper disposal of
waste directly into or above an aquifer
can cause serious ground water
Combined sewer overflows which consist
of storm water and untreated sewage and
sanitary sewer overflows are a problem
when they overflow into lakes and
rivers. They put trash, sewage,
bacteria, wastes, and other pollutants
into the water.